This is the percentage of the Moon illuminated by the Sun. Recently, it has been suggested that a roughly 3 km (1.9 mi) diameter region of the lunar surface was modified by a gas release event about a million years ago. Atomic clocks also show that Earth's day lengthens by about 15 microseconds every year,[169] slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. [77] Moonquakes and releases of gas also indicate some continued lunar activity. Most historical calendars are lunisolar. Beside the traces of human activity on the Moon, there have been some intended permanent installations like the Moon Museum art piece, Apollo 11 goodwill messages, Lunar plaque, the Fallen Astronaut memorial, and other artifacts. [66] Similar shrinkage features exist on Mercury. Philosophers Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon's gravity is too slight to affect any single person. These discrepancies may be explained by variations of the giant impact hypothesis. [151], The distance between the Moon and Earth varies from around 356,400 km (221,500 mi) to 406,700 km (252,700 mi) at perigee (closest) and apogee (farthest), respectively. The Moon is the only other planetary body that humans have visited. ", "The moon has hundreds more craters than we thought", "Topography of the Lunar Poles from Radar Interferometry: A Survey of Cold Trap Locations", "Fluxes of Fast and Epithermal Neutrons from Lunar Prospector: Evidence for Water Ice at the Lunar Poles", "Character and Spatial Distribution of OH/H2O on the Surface of the Moon Seen by M3 on Chandrayaan-1", "Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions". The illuminated area of the visible sphere (degree of illumination) is given by [62][63] At 13 km (8.1 mi) deep, its floor is the lowest point on the surface of the Moon. Since the 1990s, many more countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon. The ~30-day month is an approximation of the lunar cycle. This observation was unexpected, because most of the material that formed the Moon was thought to come from Theia and it was announced in 2007 that there was less than a 1% chance that Theia and Earth had identical isotopic signatures. [213] This was followed in 1998 by the Lunar Prospector mission, whose instruments indicated the presence of excess hydrogen at the lunar poles, which is likely to have been caused by the presence of water ice in the upper few meters of the regolith within permanently shadowed craters. [61] Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin, some 2,240 km (1,390 mi) in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System. [190] In the same century, Aristarchus computed the size and distance of the Moon from Earth, obtaining a value of about twenty times the radius of Earth for the distance. Its composition is not well understood, but is probably metallic iron alloyed with a small amount of sulfur and nickel; analyses of the Moon's time-variable rotation suggest that it is at least partly molten. This is supported by the location of the largest crustal magnetizations situated near the antipodes of the giant impact basins. As a result, the slightly greater attraction that the Moon has for the side of Earth closest to the Moon, as compared to the part of the Earth opposite the Moon, results in tidal forces. 2 What happened after that is unknown. [91] The radiometric ages of impact-melted rocks collected during the Apollo missions cluster between 3.8 and 4.1 billion years old: this has been used to propose a Late Heavy Bombardment of impacts. [239], In August 2016, the US government granted permission to US-based start-up Moon Express to land on the Moon. [50] The rocks from the Apollo program had the same isotopic signature as rocks from Earth, differing from almost all other bodies in the Solar System. The Moon phase calculator shows exact times of the various moon phases for Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in year 2020 or in other locations and years. Upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: an uncrewed lander with a set of seismometers, and an orbiter based on its failed Martian Fobos-Grunt mission. Occasionally, the name Luna /ˈluːnə/ is used in scientific writing[21] and especially in science fiction to distinguish the Earth's moon from others, while in poetry "Luna" has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon. NASA is promising 2 astronauts -- a man and a woman -- … The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the moon illusion, first described in the 7th century BC. [47], While the giant impact hypothesis might explain many lines of evidence, some questions are still unresolved, most of which involve the Moon's composition.[49]. The Moon has long been particularly associated with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic (popular shortening loony) are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. This rotation is due to tidal locking synchronous to its orbital period around Earth. The gravity on the moon is one-sixth of the Earth's gravity. Years of near lunar quietude followed, only broken by a beginning internationalization of space and the Moon through for example the negotiation of the Moon treaty. The order emphasizes that "the United States does not view outer space as a 'global commons'" and calls the Moon Agreement "a failed attempt at constraining free enterprise."[259][260]. the optical characteristics of a relatively young regolith), and have often a sinuous shape. Afterward, there were essentially only two groups: the giant impact camp and the agnostics. Rotten Tomatoes verzeichnet eine Metawertung von 89 Prozent, basierend auf über 180 Kritiken. [76] In 2006, a study of Ina, a tiny depression in Lacus Felicitatis, found jagged, relatively dust-free features that, because of the lack of erosion by infalling debris, appeared to be only 2 million years old. sin The U.S. co-launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the LCROSS impactor and follow-up observation orbiter on 18 June 2009; LCROSS completed its mission by making a planned and widely observed impact in the crater Cabeus on 9 October 2009,[223] whereas LRO is currently in operation, obtaining precise lunar altimetry and high-resolution imagery. [53], The Moon is a differentiated body. [149] The full Moon's angular diameter is about 0.52° (on average) in the sky, roughly the same apparent size as the Sun (see § Eclipses). Between the first human arrival with the robotic Soviet Luna program in 1958, to the 1970s with the last Missions of the crewed U.S. Apollo landings and last Luna mission in 1976, the Cold War-inspired Space Race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. led to an acceleration of interest in exploration of the Moon. Die Firma schickt das „Rettungsteam“ ELIZA um die Folgen des Unfalls zu bereinigen; die beiden Sam Bells müssen daher um ihr Leben fürchten. In den folgenden Produkten finden Sie als Käufer unsere beste Auswahl an Moon, wobei der erste Platz den Vergleichssieger definiert. [106] Using the mapper's reflectance spectra, indirect lighting of areas in shadow confirmed water ice within 20° latitude of both poles in 2018. Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon's surface. The subsequent landing of the first humans on the Moon in 1969 is seen by many as the culmination of the Space Race. Shop online for on-trend women's fashion and accessories that will help you find your fabulous! Dabei wird er von einer künstlichen Intelligenz namens GERTY unterstützt. The dust measurements were made by LADEE's Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX), between 20 and 100 kilometers above the surface, during a six-month period. [2] Der Film ist seit November 2009 in Großbritannien auf DVD und Blu-ray Disc erhältlich; seit Januar 2011 auch in Deutschland. A planetary-mass moon, it has among satellites with a known density the second highest surface gravity and density in the Solar System after Jupiter's moon Io. [266] A song titled 'Moon Anthem' was released on the occasion of landing of India's Chandrayan-II on the Moon. The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the center, without limb darkening, because of the reflective properties of lunar soil, which retroreflects light more towards the Sun than in other directions. In May 2011, 615–1410 ppm water in melt inclusions in lunar sample 74220 was reported,[111] the famous high-titanium "orange glass soil" of volcanic origin collected during the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. Diese warten inaktiv in einem geheimen Untergeschoss der Basis auf ihren Einsatz. Die Mission von MOON ist es, Elektromobilität Alltag werden zu lassen. Wir glauben an die Notwendigkeit der Pariser Klimaziele und bieten daher nachhaltige, intelligente und datengetriebene Energielösungen an. Watch our latest video - Expanse: Earth From Space a journey across the surface of the moon. [164] If the Earth were a water world (one with no continents) it would produce a tide of only one meter, and that tide would be very predictable, but the ocean tides are greatly modified by other effects: the frictional coupling of water to Earth's rotation through the ocean floors, the inertia of water's movement, ocean basins that grow shallower near land, the sloshing of water between different ocean basins. The usual English adjective pertaining to the Moon is "lunar", derived from the Latin word for the Moon, lūna. [191] Archimedes (287–212 BC) designed a planetarium that could calculate the motions of the Moon and other objects in the Solar System. This would have melted the outer shell of Earth, and thus formed a magma ocean. [201], Following President John F. Kennedy's 1961 commitment to a human moon landing before the end of the decade, the United States, under NASA leadership, launched a series of uncrewed probes to develop an understanding of the lunar surface in preparation for human missions: the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Ranger program produced the first close-up pictures; the Lunar Orbiter program produced maps of the entire Moon; the Surveyor program landed its first spacecraft four months after Luna 9. [178], Because the Moon continuously blocks the view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky,[m][179] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: hidden from view. September 2018, 04.17 Uhr. This motion is superimposed on the much larger revolution of the Earth around the Sun at a speed of about 30 kilometres (19 mi) per second. The Moon's far side has a crust that is 50 km (31 mi) thicker than that of the near side. Because of the precession of the lunar orbit, each year different stars are occulted. {\displaystyle (1-\cos e)/2=\sin ^{2}(e/2)} The Moon does not currently have a global dipolar magnetic field and only has crustal magnetization likely acquired early in its history when a dynamo was still operating. [262][263] Nanna was later known as Sîn,[263][262] and was particularly associated with magic and sorcery. [256][257][258], In 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump signed an executive order called "Encouraging International Support for the Recovery and Use of Space Resources". LDEX detected an average of one 0.3 micrometer Moon dust particle each minute. [47][48] Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; its depth is estimated from about 500 km (300 miles) to 1,737 km (1,079 miles). The spectrometer observed absorption lines common to hydroxyl, in reflected sunlight, providing evidence of large quantities of water ice, on the lunar surface. Zooplankton in the Arctic use moonlight when the Sun is below the horizon for months on end. These simulations also show that most of the Moon derived from the impactor, rather than the proto-Earth. In contrast, lunar eclipses occur at full moon, when Earth is between the Sun and Moon. [72] This is thought to be due to a concentration of heat-producing elements under the crust on the near side, seen on geochemical maps obtained by Lunar Prospector's gamma-ray spectrometer, which would have caused the underlying mantle to heat up, partially melt, rise to the surface and erupt. The Moon is Earth's largest natural satellite. [233], On 28 February 2018, SpaceX, Vodafone, Nokia and Audi announced a collaboration to install a 4G wireless communication network on the Moon, with the aim of streaming live footage on the surface to Earth. [204][205] The Apollo missions 11 to 17 (except Apollo 13, which aborted its planned lunar landing) removed 380.05 kilograms (837.87 lb) of lunar rock and soil in 2,196 separate samples. Der „Drei-Jahres-Vertrag“ ist zugleich die Lebenserwartung der Klone. [71] Rock and soil samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna sample return missions (Luna 16 in 1970, Luna 20 in 1972, and Luna 24 in 1976), which returned 0.3 kg total. While our Moon is airless, research indicates the presence of a form of rust that normally requires oxygen and water. ", United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, "How many States have signed and ratified the five international treaties governing outer space? The Moon's average orbital distance from Earth is 384,402 km (238,856 mi) or 1.28 light-seconds. [216] It obtained a full image map of the Moon. = [1], The discovery of fault scarp cliffs by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter suggest that the Moon has shrunk within the past billion years, by about 90 metres (300 ft). Eine Live-Verbindung zur Erde ist wegen anhaltender technischer Probleme mit einem Kommunikationssatelliten nicht möglich. MOON GmbH Maierhof 2, 94167 Tettenweis Hotline: +49 (0) 8532 9243 0 E-Mail: Natives for Sun. According to NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine, "We are building a domestic American capability to get back and forth to the surface of the moon.".[241]. The main lunar gravity features are mascons, large positive gravitational anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basins, partly caused by the dense mare basaltic lava flows that fill those basins. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws.[143]. [161][162], The Moon's appearance, like the Sun's, can be affected by Earth's atmosphere. Regulärer Kinostart in Deutschland war am 15. Left to run its course, this tidal drag would continue until the rotation of Earth and the orbital period of the Moon matched, creating mutual tidal locking between the two. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. On 14 December 2013, Chang'e 3 landed a lunar lander onto the Moon's surface, which in turn deployed a lunar rover, named Yutu (Chinese: 玉兔; literally "Jade Rabbit"). Later, the physical form of the Moon and the cause of moonlight became understood. This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth's upper mantle. Common optical effects are the 22° halo ring, formed when the Moon's light is refracted through the ice crystals of high cirrostratus clouds, and smaller coronal rings when the Moon is seen through thin clouds.[163]. Im Auftrag des weltweit größten Produzenten von Fusionsenergie Lunar Industries Limited arbeitet der Astronaut Sam Bell in einer allein zu diesem Zweck errichteten Mondbasis. Thomas Harriot had made, but not published such drawings a few months earlier. The Moon is tidally locked to Earth, which means that the length of a full rotation of the Moon on its own axis (a lunar day) is the same as the synodic period, resulting in its same side (the near side) always facing Earth. ", "Do the five international treaties regulate military activities in outer space? The particles striking the Moon's surface eject Moon dust above the Moon. Because the Moon is comparatively close to Earth, occultations of individual stars are not visible everywhere on the planet, nor at the same time. There are a few different types of unusual full moon types, which include blood moons, supermoons, blue moons, and harvest moons, and others. [91] The lack of an atmosphere, weather and recent geological processes mean that many of these craters are well-preserved. [71] It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet,[i] though Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto, at 1/9 Pluto's mass. [119][120] The anomalies greatly influence the orbit of spacecraft about the Moon. It has a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and core. 4th century BC) gave instructions for predicting solar and lunar eclipses. [100] The presence of usable quantities of water on the Moon is an important factor in rendering lunar habitation as a cost-effective plan; the alternative of transporting water from Earth would be prohibitively expensive. Moonquakes are much less common and weaker than are earthquakes, although moonquakes can last for up to an hour – significantly longer than terrestrial quakes – because of the absence of water to damp out the seismic vibrations. [134][135], In October 2017, NASA scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston announced their finding, based on studies of Moon magma samples retrieved by the Apollo missions, that the Moon had once possessed a relatively thick atmosphere for a period of 70 million years between 3 and 4 billion years ago. This results in elevated sea levels called ocean tides. [192], During the Middle Ages, before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was "perfectly smooth". However, because it reflects direct sunlight, is contrasted by the relatively dark sky, and has a large apparent size when viewed from Earth, the Moon is the brightest celestial object in Earth's sky after the Sun. In Mesopotamian iconography, the crescent was the primary symbol of Nanna-Sîn. Since the Moon doesn't have tectonic plates, its tectonic activity is slow and cracks develop as it loses heat over the years. ", "Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies", "The treaties control space-related activities of States. Moon ist ein Hard SF aus dem Jahr 2009 von Duncan Jones mit Sam Rockwell, Kevin Spacey und Dominique McElligott. [105], The 2008 Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has since confirmed the existence of surface water ice, using the on-board Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Before the conference, there were partisans of the three "traditional" theories, plus a few people who were starting to take the giant impact seriously, and there was a huge apathetic middle who didn't think the debate would ever be resolved. The Moon is an exceptionally large natural satellite relative to Earth: Its diameter is more than a quarter and its mass is 1/81 of Earth's. Although similar to terrestrial basalts, lunar basalts have more iron and no minerals altered by water. The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar. [188] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song dynasty created an allegory equating the waxing and waning of the Moon to a round ball of reflective silver that, when doused with white powder and viewed from the side, would appear to be a crescent. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a detailed geological understanding of the Moon's origins, internal structure, and subsequent history; the most widely accepted origin explanation posits that the Moon formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth, out of the debris from a giant impact between the planet and a hypothetical Mars-sized body called Theia. Der US-amerikanische Schauspieler Sam Rockwell spielt in dem Film eine Doppel- bzw. e November 2020 um 20:10 Uhr bearbeitet. In einer nicht genauer bestimmten Zukunft wird der Energiebedarf der Erde zu etwa 70 % durch Helium-3 gedeckt, das auf der „dunklen Seite des Mondes“ – der erdabgewandten Mondseite – durch mehrere, Harvester genannte, riesige Maschinen abgebaut wird. Because the distance between the Moon and Earth is very slowly increasing over time,[164] the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing. [98][99] Computer simulations suggest that up to 14,000 km2 (5,400 sq mi) of the surface may be in permanent shadow. [55][56] This structure is thought to have developed through the fractional crystallization of a global magma ocean shortly after the Moon's formation 4.5 billion years ago. Moon - Der absolute Testsieger unserer Produkttester Um Ihnen zuhause die Wahl des richtigen Produkts wenigstens etwas abzunehmen, haben unsere Produkttester am Ende den Sieger ausgesucht, welcher ohne Zweifel unter all den Moon enorm herausragt - vor allem unter dem Aspekt Verhältnis von Qualität und Preis. [l] The combination of these two changes means that hundreds of millions of years ago, the Moon would always completely cover the Sun on solar eclipses, and no annular eclipses were possible. This gives a maximum perceived increase of 14% between apogee and perigee moons of the same phase. [180], One of the earliest-discovered possible depictions of the Moon is a 5000-year-old rock carving Orthostat 47 at Knowth, Ireland. [251], Although Luna landers scattered pennants of the Soviet Union on the Moon, and U.S. flags were symbolically planted at their landing sites by the Apollo astronauts, no nation claims ownership of any part of the Moon's surface. ", Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, "Carved and Drawn Prehistoric Maps of the Cosmos", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C. The result is a further tidal effect of the Moon on the Earth that causes a bulge of the solid portion of the Earth nearest the Moon that acts as a torque in opposition to the Earth's rotation. Although of considerable selenological interest, this announcement affords little comfort to would-be lunar colonists – the sample originated many kilometers below the surface, and the inclusions are so difficult to access that it took 39 years to find them with a state-of-the-art ion microprobe instrument. The surface area of the Moon is slightly less than the areas of North and South America combined. This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence. Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". [203] An estimated 500 million people worldwide watched the transmission by the Apollo TV camera, the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time. [247] A lunar zenith telescope can be made cheaply with an ionic liquid. Several geologic provinces containing shield volcanoes and volcanic domes are found within the near side "maria". marker of the month" (cf. [170][171], In a like manner, the lunar surface experiences tides of around 10 cm (4 in) amplitude over 27 days, with two components: a fixed one due to Earth, because they are in synchronous rotation, and a varying component from the Sun. [77] In 2014 NASA announced "widespread evidence of young lunar volcanism" at 70 irregular mare patches identified by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, some less than 50 million years old. [235], In 2007, the X Prize Foundation together with Google launched the Google Lunar X Prize to encourage commercial endeavors to the Moon. 5 Mio. Analysis of the findings of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) revealed in August 2018 for the first time "definitive evidence" for water-ice on the lunar surface. The spacecraft released a smaller probe, Hagoromo, in lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, preventing further scientific use of the mission. [148] Additionally, color constancy in the visual system recalibrates the relations between the colors of an object and its surroundings, and because the surrounding sky is comparatively dark, the sunlit Moon is perceived as a bright object. Because of the tidal locked rotation, the sidreal and synodic rotation periods correspond to the sidreal (27.3 Earth days) and synodic (29.5 Earth days) orbital periods.[141]. Here's the thing. The Moon is the only other planetary body that humans have visited. This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System ever measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto. Mehrfachrolle als Astronaut Sam Bell. Jetzt anmelden und #DABEI sein! Zusätzlich wird GERTY auf eigenen Wunsch hin neu gebootet, um zu verhindern, dass dessen Speicher ausgelesen wird und Lunar Industries so von den Vorgängen erfährt. Ten other American astronauts followed. The side of the Moon that faces Earth is called the near side, and the opposite the far side. [131][132] The absence of such neutral species (atoms or molecules) as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and magnesium, which are present in the regolith, is not understood. Months are traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.[279]. [12][129] Elements that have been detected include sodium and potassium, produced by sputtering (also found in the atmospheres of Mercury and Io); helium-4 and neon[130] from the solar wind; and argon-40, radon-222, and polonium-210, outgassed after their creation by radioactive decay within the crust and mantle. [58][73][74] Most of the Moon's mare basalts erupted during the Imbrian period, 3.0–3.5 billion years ago, although some radiometrically dated samples are as old as 4.2 billion years. Moon steht für: Moon-Bewegung (nach ihrem Gründer Sun Myung Moon), eine alternative Bezeichnung der Vereinigungskirche; Moon City, Erlebnis- und Forschungszentrum für Elektromobilität von Porsche Austria in Salzburg; Moon Motor Car Company, ehemaliger US-amerikanischer Automobilhersteller; Moon (Band), deutsche Wave-Band The Moon's highest altitude at culmination varies by its phase and time of year. [95], Comparison of high-resolution images obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has shown a contemporary crater-production rate significantly higher than previously estimated. India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, orbited from 8 November 2008 until loss of contact on 27 August 2009, creating a high-resolution chemical, mineralogical and photo-geological map of the lunar surface, and confirming the presence of water molecules in lunar soil. Larger planets tend to have more satellites, both large and small, than smaller planets. Aufgrund der Vorwürfe krimineller Aktivitäten auf dem Mond stürzt der Aktienkurs von Lunar Industries ab, und der jüngere Sam macht eine Aussage vor einem wichtigen Aufsichtsgremium in Seattle. The most obvious effect of tidal forces is to cause two bulges in the Earth's oceans, one on the side facing the Moon and the other on the side opposite. [131] Water vapor has been detected by Chandrayaan-1 and found to vary with latitude, with a maximum at ~60–70 degrees; it is possibly generated from the sublimation of water ice in the regolith. [78][79][80][81] Just prior to this, evidence has been presented for 2–10 million years younger basaltic volcanism inside the crater Lowell,[82][83] Orientale basin, located in the transition zone between the near and far sides of the Moon. The crust is on average about 50 kilometres (31 mi) thick. Allerdings wird in einem Telefonat noch der Vorwurf erhoben, der „angebliche Klon“ sei ein „Spinner oder illegaler Einwanderer“, so oder so gehöre er ins Gefängnis, was als ein Versuch von Lunar Industries interpretiert werden kann, den Vorfall zu vertuschen. BTSMAP OF THE SOUL : 7Released on: 2020-02-21Auto-generated by YouTube. [71] Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits closer to the ecliptic plane than to the planet's equatorial plane. With 27% the diameter and 60% the density of Earth, the Moon has 1.23% of the mass of Earth.