The book places equal emphasis on theoretical aspects of covered methodologies, empirical observations, and verifications of various applications in practice. The mean global land total flash density is about 8.3 km -2 yr -•. For each classification method, 50 tests have been utilized, and classification performance for 2 to 15 classes has been investigated through Davis-Bouldin criterion. The geographical distribution of lightning incidence is described by a map of total lightning flash density, N t (i.e., cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes). It also found that the blunt configuration has the lowest breakdown voltage in both conditions. Moreover, the constant K is determined by the ratio between the number of output units and hidden units. In October 2009, the, (S) with 15764 strikes. Lightning has been the major cause of power interruptions in Malaysia. However, the current practise to identify and distinguish each species is heavily dependent on botanists. Bhd. It is important to note that the analysis is … Thus further study to, increase the accuracy could be done to enlighten, prospective of lightning classification with, Protection (CELP) UPM Collaborate to provide, Global Lightning Data especially for Penins, Malaysia. Thus, a, Figure 10: Mapping of the lightning strike, desired characteristics. Her research, interests include artificial intelligence, process, Putra Malaysia. The proposed approach consists of four stages namely data collection, data labeling, classification; and performance evaluation. Continuous monitoring of sensors performance for upgraded network is being carried out by Lightning Detection System Laboratory operated by TNBR. LATs are tested under conditions with and without ionization to simulate the conditions that will prevail in real lightning condition. The global maps shows the average density of lightning strikes per square kilometer based on data from 1995 to 2013. 0000002087 00000 n The lightning flash density, defined as the number of flashes of a specific type occurring on or over unit area in unit time, is commonly used to describe lightning activity. The combinations α and η behave under the constant rule, which is represented by η=K(1-α). Lightning photograph: A night-time photograph of multiple cloud-to-ground and cloud-to-cloud lightning strokes. NASA has two different sensors on satellites that measuring flash frequency, the Optical Transient Detector, OTD, and the Lightning Imaging Sensor, LIS. method has many advantages compared to conventional method that requires botanists. striking distance. Lightning has been a major cause of power interruptions in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), one of power utility in Malaysia as this country is among the countries with the highest lightning activities in the world. The percentage that agreed with correct statements is slightly below 50%. Introduction The first estimate of global lightning occurrence was made Owing to the literature gap, this paper is written to summarise the working principles of the relevant sensors and the various methods of data transmission, storage and analysis, as well as the various ways of predicting the occurrence of lightning strikes. The transient response is obtained by applying the lightning impulse current to the equivalent circuit under several values of grounding resistance and several cable sheath grounding methods with different lightning strike waveforms. Data from the OTD from 1995 - 2000 and the LIS from 1998 - 2005 has been combined and averaged to create an average annual lightning flash rate map. Classification employed the regular and fuzzy K-means methods. According to the analysis result of lightning performance, setting lightning protection devices selectively can improve its lightning performance effectively with lesser cost, which has a good technology and economy. Click the image for a larger version of the map. A questionnaire survey is done among 100 respondents, comprised of an equal number of participants from each gender. However, the, The level of lightning strike has shown that, Peninsular Malaysia has received a relatively, because it has a well balance of lightning strike, level distribution. 0000039153 00000 n The lightning strike towards the surface, on earth has been estimated at 100 times every, fatality to humans and animals. This paper describes the lightning phenomenon and different ideas whereby we will be able to harness the power of lightning. 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