The nutritional content of potatoes and sweet potatoes. Tropical in origin, sweet potatoes do require ample heat over a long season (at least four frost-free months), but they can be grown successfully at higher latitudes with a little extra attention. University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo, Affiliations Michael W. Twitty, a culinary historian and author of Cooking Gene, distinguishes between the two delicacies: “Yam is definitely a term from Western Africa, especially Senegambia, where in several West Atlantic languages it refers to the verb, nyam, to eat. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. Slight difference was observed on the total number of alleles: 90 for the first dataset and 83 for the second. No, Is the Subject Area "Phenotypes" applicable to this article? We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. In the United States, the terms “yam” and “sweet potato” are used interchangeably, but they are completely different vegetables. I … roasted sweet potato This emoji shows an image of a sweet potato with purple, orange or brown skin sliced in half to show its flesh. Also, Chaplin is an avid reader. The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species. Indeed, farmers use phenotype to distinguish the plant . For each accession, a stem was sampled and kept isolated for further genetic and phenotypic experiments. Here, we focus on the sweet potato. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. The climate is characterized by two rainy seasons, leading to two periods of sweet potato cultivation (April-July and September-December). Twelve microsatellite (SSRs) previously designed for sweet potato  were used (S2 Table). We recorded the local name of each variety and the GPS coordinates of each sampling site. The genetic groups were also associated with morphological differentiation, mainly the shape of the leaves and the color of the stem or root. Similar observations were made by Shigeta  for sweet potato landraces in Ethiopia, and by Elias et al. Preheat oven to 425º. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697. The morphological characteristics of the leaf and stem were recorded 90 days after planting. The field was weeded manually with a hoe and watered if necessary. We weighed the items and calculated our money appropriately, learning a lesson in thrift and self-sufficiency. The k-mean cluster, K from 3 to 5 for each dataset was tested. Not only does this one-skillet dinner pack in … Sweet potato in all languages. Funding: This study was partly funded by the Agropolis Foundation’s “Agropolis Resource Center for Crop Adaptation and Diversity” (ARCAD) project, the French embassy in Togo (SCAC), Institut Sénégalais de la Recherche Agricole (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal; the Institut de la Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) in Dakar, Sénégal and Montpellier, France; the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) grant N°11514/2011/DDS/DESFP/PAES-436 to Kodjo Glato and the University of Lomé, Togo. No, Is the Subject Area "Leaves" applicable to this article? We thank C. Roullier and Professor K. Akpagana for early on advice on this study, V. Lebot for helpful comments and the farmers who willingly participated in the study. The GPS coordinates of each sampling site were recorded. PLoS ONE 12(5): If you want to know how to say sweet potato in Maori, you will find the translation here. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from "acok" in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to "maku" in Lugbara. And, unless you shop in a specialty store, it’s likely that you’ve only purchased sweet potatoes (even if they were labeled as yams).In the US, sweet potatoes are the sweet, orange potato typically found in supermarkets. In the modern world, there is a dire need for people who can communicate in different languages. The geographical distribution of allelic diversity appears to be a practical and cost-efficient way to preserve genetic diversity . Roasted Sweet Potato is a fully-qualified emoji as part of Unicode 6.0 which was introduced in 2010. Local landraces of sweet potato need to be collected, characterized and conserved to improve African production. And though Europeans considered them an exotic delicacy, they took hold within cuisine before the standard “Irish” potato did. More thorough sampling throughout Africa is now needed to assess such hypotheses. A p-value < 5% was considered to be significant. Although Africa occupies the second position, annual production (19%) remains far below that in Asia, which alone produces 75% of the world annual production . We also observed genetic groups that occur in a wider range of climates. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, Affiliations Consequently, comparisons between studies of morphological diversity are difficult. When K = 5 (Fig 3), the first group contained 18 accessions, 15 from Togo and three from Senegal. Yams vs. sweet potatoes. Two different people scored the alleles. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s009. “Tropical accession” also had very specific traits: the number of lobes, type of central lobe of the leaf, and pubescence (S8 Table).  found a mean of four alleles in 57 sweet potato from Tanzania. Fourth is Ethiopia at 2,701,599 metric tons. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The high diversity observed in West Africa might suggests that sweet potato was also introduced in the region rather than simply being the result of diffusion after its introduction in East Africa. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, Allelic frequency ranged from 0.007 to 0.990 in the three regions. We also reminisced about the sweet potato pies made by our mother and the sweet potato poon prepared by our great aunt. Based on the mean allele value per locus, which was 7.4 in the present study and those listed elsewhere, we tend to have a higher level of diversity in West Africa. The analysis using STRUCTURE tend also favored five clusters (S4 Fig). This is the translation of … The table shown the SSRs markers used, the numbers of alleles of each markers, the total number of allele found on each continent and their means. We assessed the composition of the group at different K values (3, 4, 5, 6) and K = 5 appeared to be the best number of genetic groups to explain the genetic data on the basis of significant statistical analysis, individual position in the group, and membership probability. In Wolof, sweet cassava, which looks more like sweet potatoes than authentic yams, is called nyam-bi or the thing that you eat.”. Etymologically, only six out of 31 appear to be directly related to names of specific varieties. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs. Membership probabilities for each individual were plotted using the compoplot function of R. We also used STRUCTURE 2.3.4 software [30, 31]. This clever technique for transforming sweet potatoes into "fettuccine" was inspired by a prize-winning recipe from the North Carolina Sweet Potato Commission, and this easy recipe comes together in just 35 minutes. The two other clusters “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2” contained accessions either from Togo or Senegal and the climatic conditions were less well defined. Given an allotted amount of money and clear instructions for the purchase, my sisters and I selected vegetables that were listed only in memory. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. For example, an anthropologist in Irian Jaya found forty different cultivars of sweet potato growing in just one community garden. On a baking sheet lined with aluminum foil, prick sweet potatoes all over with a fork. The Gullah culture and language were developed by descendants of enslaved Africans—predominately people from West Africa—who were brought to America primarily because of their skills in the cultivation of rice. For differentiation, potatoes are called batata-inglesa (literally, "English potato"), a name used in other regions and sociolects to differentiate it from the batata-doce, "sweet potato", ironic names since both were first cultivated by the indigenous peoples of South America, their native continent, and only later introduced in Europe by the colonizers. The collection was done with permission of doctors Bassirou Diallo (ISRA) from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo (ESA) from Togo. The relationship between a genetic group and specific geographical features has been previously reported . The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a plant that is a member of the morning glory family, grown for its sweet, edible, tuberous roots.Sweet potatoes contain a lot of fiber and beta-carotene.They are eaten around the world. While some cooking styles can raise the fat and sugar content of sweet potatoes, steaming uses zero-calorie water so you can enjoy the potatoes without feeling guilty. In the tropical-arid accessions, most of the accessions sampled in Togo were from the northern part of the country, where the climate is arid. Sweet potato probably originated in South America, but it was grown in the Pacific before western exploration. Sweet potato slips are produced by year-old sweet potatoes in hot … Samples were collected with farmers consent. The amplification conditions were slightly modified and the fluorochromes for each marker (new conditions listed in S2 Table). The characteristics of the stem recorded were vine internode length, diameter between nodes, color, port and pubescence. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. All the accessions from the northern part of Togo were in this group, named “Tropical arid accessions”. An individual is represented as a vertical bar. To understand the genetic structure and diversity of sweet potato in West Africa, we focused on two countries, Togo and Senegal, which cover a range of climates. In Africa, the main hypothesis is that sweet potato was introduced by explorers from Spain and Portugal in the 16th century in east Africa in Tanzania [11, 12, 10]. Each SSR allele was binary coded (0 for absence and 1 for presence) following previous approaches used for this hexaploid species . A total of 132 accessions were collected: 112 from Togo in 2012, and 20 from Senegal in 2014 (S1 Table). Since reading of size might be difficult for hexaploid plants , we performed a second independent run and an independent score of alleles. Indeed, 76% of accessions with the same local name were in fact attributed to different groups. Tanzanians prefer it as crisps, porridge, steamed, and mashed potatoes. 8000 BCE, but it is believed to have been a wild form. Salt and pepper to taste. Wilcoxon paired tests were then performed for each significant trait to assess which specific genetic group differed significantly from the others. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from “acok” in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to “maku” in Lugbara. In the early 20th century , "soft" sweet potatoes… Featured below is a detailed overview of the global Sweet Potato market information. The values indicate the PIC of the loci used to analyze our 132 African accessions. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Access other dictionaries such as English to Arabic, English to French, and English to Hindi to check the Sweet Potato meaning in different languages. The least represented group was “Sahelian accessions”, which was found in only 8% of the villages. Yams, however, are a totally different vegetable that either type of sweet potato, with a white inside and a dark, nearly black skin. Search meanings in Urdu to get the better understanding of the context. The scientific name of Sweet Potato is the botanical name or formal name. Allelic frequency among the accessions ranged from 0.007 to 0.990 and PIC from 0.11 to 0.31 with a mean of 0.19 (Fig 1). The genetic diversity of West African sweet potato is structured by geography, climate, genetics and morphology. Sub-Saharan agriculture has been identified as vulnerable to ongoing climate change. The first axis mainly represents the south/north gradient from a tropical humid zone (Danyi-Peyeyeme) to the northern Togo tropical arid zone (Village of Gabonbong), and then to the drier part of Senegal (S6 Fig). No, Is the Subject Area "Phylogeography" applicable to this article? Yellow- or white-fleshed sweet potatoes have a dry and crumbly texture when baked and are not moist enough to make tender pancakes, so use the orange variety. A mean of 3.56 samples was collected per village. We ran the admixture model with a number of populations from K = 1 to 20 with 15 runs using a 100.000 burn in period and 400.000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) steps. Such practices both increase and spread genetic diversity between villages and are particularly important in preserving plant diversity and avoiding genetic erosion. The number indicates the number of accessions. The three other groups were roughly associated with climate: “Tropical-arid accessions”, “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2”. Hence, scientific name of Sweet Potato is used worldwide. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s003. Still it is beneficial to know the common name of all garden plants. From one to three nodes of each of the 112 accessions were planted (236 cuttings with an average 2.10 per accession). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. A total of 90 alleles were observed. However, its genetic characterization is still partial. Although Gullahs, like many people, use the terms yams and sweet potatoes interchangeably, these two roots are different. (2017) Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient. For this hexaploid species, the PIC was calculated considering an allele as a locus: PIC = 1 –(P12 + P22 + 2P12P22) where P1 and P2 corresponded to the frequency of the presence (1) and absence (0) of an allele. The second group, called “Tropical accessions”, contained 27 accessions all from Togo. Molecular markers make it possible to conduct such comparisons across countries and continents. This suggest another interesting hypothesis to be tested about the diffusion of sweet potato in Africa. Group four contained eight accessions all from Senegal called “Sahelian accessions”. The common name is widely used everywhere. Nigerians prefer their sweet potato in porridge, fermented drinks, and plain boiled. Often sold in the winter wrapped in aluminium and cooked in coals or hot stones called yaki imo, this is … A total of 21 agro-morphological traits were used. A total of 31 different local names were recorded: 18 in Togo and 13 in Senegal. In fact, I learned about the “farm to table” movement long before it was “chic” or popular, as it is these days. The number of PCA chosen could be based on (a) a score function which indicated the appropriate number of PCA axes to be retained. By looking at example sentences with the word Sweet Potato, you can easily learn the use of Sweet Potato in English sentence. Among the tools used for assessing the diversity of African sweet potato, agro-morphological analysis was conducted in Tanzania , Kenya  and Burkina-Faso . We used the same sampling protocol as in Togo, except that young leaves were collected instead of stems. Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. The other tropical accessions, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2”, were present in 25% of the villages. No, Is the Subject Area "Togo" applicable to this article? You can discover details including top producing & exporting countries, real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes, and more. My chat with my sister about the delicious sweet potato became nostalgic as we recalled the various sweet potato recipes that infused our childhood and culture growing up on the peninsula of Charleston, South Carolina, during the 1970s. The sampled village arearranged following the first axis according to a climatic gradient from the humid south (DANYI PEYEYEME) to the arid tropical north (GABONBONG) of Togo, followed by the Saharan climat of Senegal (DAGANA). The size of the circle is proportional to the number of samples. Cornmeal adds crunch, and mashed sweet potatoes lend creaminess to this weekend favorite. In contrast, Stephen Facciola's Cornucopia II (1998) lists only twenty-five different … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s012. Sweet Potato Meaning in Urdu - In the age of digital communication, any person should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication. Many of these are unique to a particular country or region.  with slight modifications. All loci were independently amplified using the multiplex PCR kit (Qiagen) in a final volume of 10 μl; 5 μl master mix (1x); 2 μl Q solution (1x); 2 μl DNA; 0.2 μl R primer; 0.2 μl F primer and 0.6 μl Rnase free solution. However, one should be cautious, because different sets of SSR markers are used, and type and number of repetitions for the microsatellite motif impact the number of alleles and consequently the diversity assessment  Nevertheless, a higher diversity in our study is not unexpected, because we sampled a greater climatic contrast in West Africa and more than one country. If it isn't fork-tender after five minutes, continue to microwave in one-minute increments until done. America has the highest number of alleles, approximately 11, followed by Oceania with 9 and Africa with 7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g002. Baked sweet potato is one of my favorite side dishes. The result shows that the maximum ΔK value is found with K = 5. In the United States, the terms “yam” and “sweet potato” are used interchangeably, but they are completely different vegetables. Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. They knew exactly how much cinnamon, sugar, butter, milk, eggs and nutmeg to include with the sweet potato pie, as well as the ingredients and the lengthy process used to make their special homemade pie crusts. The table show the p-value obtained with Wilcoxon-Paired test between different dataset. The number of PCA axes retained was based on (1) the a score optimization procedure proposed in the ADEGENET package , (2) the cumulative percentage of variance explained by the first selected axes. The trait was considered as specific to a group when the p-value of the test was < 0.05 for paired tests. Natural sweetness lends itself to a wide variety of delicious recipes such as sweet potato pie, pancakes, muffins, biscuits or even bisque. You can discover details including: top producing & exporting countries, real-time market prices, local product varieties, seasonality, production & export volumes, and more Convenience stores also sell ready-to-eat sweet potatoes, but bake them on a special electric grill rather than in an oven. The number of alleles recorded was used to statistically compare diversity in the three areas, West Africa, Tropical America and Oceania. For convenience, roast a sweet potato the night before. In addition, sweet potato is receiving increased attention as a rich source of vitamin A [3, 2]. The concentrations were assessed using NanoDrop 2000/2000C. Sweet Potato in Spanish can be different from Sweet Potato in English. I told my her that I would dress my treat with cinnamon. The stems from the 2012 field experiment were harvested for use in the 2013 field experiment. Therefore, to honor those West African ancestral connections, Gullah people recognize sweet tata and other foods as a major part of our cultural identity. Simply made with only one ingredient, Certified organic sweet potato. Some studies done in a smaller region did not always report such results, for example in Uganda , in Mozambique  and in Puerto Rico . This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. 99 examples: Common species of vegetables cultivated on the plots were tomato, spinach… Although Gullahs, like many people, use the terms yams and sweet potatoes interchangeably, these two roots are different. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, We hope this will help you to understand Maori better. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. In Senegal, we collected accessions in four villages in the region where most sweet potato is cultivated (region of Saint-Louis). The root traits recorded were root shape, main color of the skin, secondary color of the skin, main color of the flesh, secondary color of the flesh, distribution of the secondary color of the flesh. Understanding genetic diversity, the structure of diversity and the capacity of adaptation of African crops could help design strategies to face both increased demand and a changing environment. This result confirms that K = 5 is the best and appropriate number of groups to be returned. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, Affiliation “Kūmara,” the Maori word for sweet potato, closely resembles “kumar” in the Peruvian native language Quechua. To allow comparison with our sampling number, we randomly sampled 132 accessions both for Tropical America and Oceania. Make organic sweet potato a wonderful vegetable side dish to your favorite meal. At this stage, we could not clearly differentiated these two hypotheses. Yams, however, are a totally different vegetable that either type of sweet potato, with a white inside and a dark, nearly black skin. Yes Maturity was determined as when the vine turned yellow, roughly five months after planting. GeneMapper software version 4.1 was used to score alleles. Locus ib292 had the highest number of alleles and loci J263 and J315 the lowest (S3 Table). In addition to the six common traits, we found the color of the leaf petiole. The first time I experienced an actual yam was at a West African restaurant, and I remember its interior being whiter and starchier than the sweet potato. We then assessed the optimal number of clusters supported by the genetic data using the k-means procedure . Communication is difficult at best. SSRs were diluted and pooled for migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) implemented in the ADENEGET package  using R software 3.1.1  was used to assess the distribution of genetic diversity. Jennie Chaplin grew up in Charleston, South Carolina, and now resides in Washington, D.C. She is a cultural interpreter. To do so, for each accession we downloaded the BIOCLIM data  composed of 19 bioclimatic variables and monthly climate data (temperature and precipitation). Sweet potato pie created by Shonda Chaplin. The soil in the field is classified as ferralitic. If such structure is proved to be associated with specific climatic adaptation, it will also allow developing strategies to adapt agriculture to ongoing climate variation in West Africa. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. A Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was calculated with each model (K = 1 to 20). When K = 3, seven traits were associated. Change language & content: Switch to Latino (Español) ... How to Cook a Sweet Potato in the Microwave Southern Living. The aim of the collection was to maximize the variability observed in each village . We found a significant relationship between the cluster and climatic variables. It was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century [11, 12]. Incidentally, yams and sweet potatoes are different. The last bar represents the mean PIC of the 12 markers. Naming. University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo, This table shows that the two datasets produce approximately the same results: 92% of the samples are allocated to same group in the two datasets. Communication is difficult at best. To choose K, which describes our dataset well, we ran successive Ks (3, 4, 5, 6) to run DAPC. Leaves were collected from the Togo samples during the 2012 field experiment. Indeed, the climate in Togo is contrasted and diversified: arid in the north and humid in the south. Types of Sweet Potatoes. Citation: Glato K, Aidam A, Kane NA, Bassirou D, Couderc M, Zekraoui L, et al. Place pieces in pan and cover in olive oil. Because of her upbringing on a rural farm, my mother saw high value in sweet potatoes and other farm-grown vegetables because of their freshness. I was told that the sweet potato is a reminder of what we (enslaved Africans) brought from the Old World to the New World. The space between plants and between rows was 1 m. The experiment was repeated three times, once in 2012 and twice in 2013. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. Analyses were computed independently on the two datasets, and overall agreement was shown between datasets (see details in the supplementary file). This is considered unther the climatic context in which African countries have to increase agricultural production to feed their growing populations. No village had all five genetic groups (Table 1 and S1 Table). Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be a secondary center of diversity . https://food.ndtv.com/lists/10-best-sweet-potato-recipes-712464 The sweet potato originated in tropical America [8, 9] and was dispersed around the world principally by human mediated migration; and is now cultivated in most tropical regions . Gwandu et al. For example, four accessions called “dankadou” were distributed between the Tropical arid accessions group and Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2. The lower diversity in East Africa than in West Africa suggests that sweet potato was not simply a sub-sample from East Africa but might have been re-introduced into West Africa later on. Think sweet potato, but a little more refined. In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. Ptilinopus 13:52, 25 November 2012 (UTC) Sweet Potato Colors and Species. The result of the phylogram among accessions was also in agreement with the five genetic groups (Fig 4). This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. This hypothesis of specific climatic adaptation could be tested and if validated suggest possible strategy of crop adaptation to future conditions. The phylogram was visualized using the international tree of life: Itoel Program v2 . She is also a defensive plant, possessing a toughness scale equivalent that of a Wall-nut. The two groups “Tropical accessions” and “Sahelian accessions” were certainly shaped by ecological conditions, and might reflect specific adaptation to climate and soil. A thorough analysis of sweet potato diversity of the whole Africa remains to be done. In this research the storage performance of sweet potato roots in an evaporative cooling barn was investigated with three different pre-storage treatments - ash, brine and Lantana camara extract to evaluate their effects on weight loss, shrinkage, weevil damage, sprouting and decay over 12 … The total of significant traits of each model for the two datasets was mentionned. Naming. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g003. Different genotypes from different genetic clusters were generally found within the villages. The group subdivision obtained was clear when we moved from K = 3 to K = 4 and K = 5. This analysis enabled us to identify specific genetic groups showing phenotypic differences and occurring in different climatic conditions. The Wilcoxon paired test revealed significant differences in diversity between America and West Africa (p-value = 0.0083) and Oceania (p-value = 0.048). However, confirming this hypothesis would require not only a similar set of markers but also a very similar sampling strategy. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from "acok" in Ateso, the language … Used with the 21 morphological traits attention as a way to preserve genetic diversity between villages the... S3 Table ) PCA axes were then performed for each significant trait to assess relationships agro-morphological. Than bite-sized Togo accessions in the three regions not involve endangered or protected species collected instead of.. One-Minute increments until done leading to two periods of sweet potato cultivars crops, root and quantitative number... 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